Japanese beetles feed from the foliage and fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology 89: 156-164. 344 pp. USDA Technical Bulletin 1545, Washington, DC. The aboveground feeding of adult Japanese beetle on multiple hosts, compared to the root feeding of grubs primarily on turf calls for different management strategy. Photograph by APHIS-USDA. In order to manage the Japanese beetle population, control efforts need to address both adult and larval population through an approach that integrates the following methods: Physical Removal and Exclusion: In a small area, beetles can be physically removed from the plants on cool mornings when they are less active. Figure 6. Localized. Beetles feeding habits are widely varied, but all have mouthparts adapted for chewing. Appearance of adult, the timing of oviposition and subsequent development have been shown to vary with latitude, altitude, and also from year to year (Fleming 1972). Potter DA, Held DW. The majority of grubs reach the third instar by the fall when soil temperature gradually decreases. Adult Japanese beetles are stocky and range from about 3/8 to 1/2 inch long. Their damage can be identified by lacelike defoliation. Scientific name: Popillia japonica (Newman) Japanese beetle larvae are white. Accumulation of fecal matter in the hindgut may give a grayish to dark appearance to the posterior end. Even though these devices are most useful for monitoring populations and detecting new infestations, their deployment for mass trapping to suppress established populations is considered rather ineffective (Potter and Held 2002). Biology of the Japanese beetle. The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonicaNewman, is a widespread and destructive pest of turf, landscape, and ornamental plants in the United States. Common Name: Japanese beetle Scientific Name: Scarabaeidae: Popillia japonica Status: A pest of many plants, grasses and ornamentals Damaging Stage: Adult and grub Biology: The Japanese beetle is about -inch long with shiny copper-colored wing covers and a shiny green top of the thorax and head. The Japanese beetle is one of the most destructive pests in the United States, chewing its way through the leaves of upwards of 300 different species, especially rose, grapes, linden, and crepe myrtle. (April 2010). Biological control agents for white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in anticipation of the establishment of the Japanese beetle in California. However, Japanese beetle can also be a pest in soybeans and other agricultural crops as well. Cropping System. More than 300 species of plants are known to be host to Japanese beetle. Q. What’s the Japanese beetle’s scientific name? Currently the Japanese beetle is the most widespread pest of turfgrass and costs the turf and ornamental industry approximately $450 million each year in management alone (Potter and Held 2002). Adults have a metallic green color with copper colored wings and are oval in shape. 1981). The activity of the grub ceases around 10°C (50°F) and most larvae overwinter as third instar at a depth of 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6 inches). Pupa: Pupation takes place within an earthen cell formed by the last larval instar; the pupa is about 14 mm (1/2 inch) long and 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide. National Agricultural Pest Information Service. Grass turf damaged by larvae of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. A typical morphological feature that helps to identify the Japanese beetle from other closely resembling beetles is the presence of six pairs of white hair brushes around the margins of the abdomen. NEW: Conditions related to movement of plant products that could carry Japanese beetle between states are set by the Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan which has recently been updated, read about the updated plan. Photograph by M.G. Figure 11. It is believed … Once there, click on the double arrows at the top left to view the map legend. The head is yellowish-brown with strong dark-colored mandibles and the body consists of three thoracic and ten abdominal segments. 1996. (2004). Japanese Beetle. After 3-7 days, the larva hatch out and begin searching for food. The larvae, commonly known as white grubs, primarily feed on roots of grasses often destroying turf in lawns, park… Field Distribution. The multi-colored Asian Lady Beetle goes through four stages in its life cycle. EPPO. The most likely thing to be mistaken for Japanese beetle is the false Japanese beetle which is similar but can be distinguished by coloration and the lack of white hair tufts at the posterior end of the abdomen. News 126: 153-174. Many insecticides are labeled for Japanese beetle control on landscape plants. Proper application knowledge of entomopathogenic nematodes is required for maximum effectiveness, as improper application can result in greatly reduced efficacy because of nematode climate sensitivity. They were first found in the U.S. in New Jersey in 1916. Cultural practices affect Withholding of irrigation during peak beetle flight activity may reduce grub population in turf (Potter et al. Leaves are typically skeletonized or left with only a tough network of veins. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on rose bloom. The Japanese beetle also known as the scientific name Popillia japonica is a pest that has various lifecycles that can cause serious damage as you may already know. They are metallic green with coppery wing covers. Japanese beetles are known for their greenish metallic color. Saint Paul, MN 55155-2538, Phone: 651-201-6000 Contact the MDA if you spot Japanese beetle in areas not known to be infested, or spot large numbers of Japanese beetles in an area where they are not known to be abundant. Larvae (grubs) of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on corn tassel. Local infestations spread as beetles move to favored food and egg-laying sites. With the beginning of spring, the grubs return to the plant roots to resume feeding for four to six weeks until they are ready to pupate. Figure 14. Pupa of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Yellow eggs are laid in clusters of varying numbers. Female adult lady beetles lay eggs on plants near colonies of aphids, mites and scale insects. Photograph by Anne_Sophie Roy, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, www.forestryimages.org. Ent. There is a row of white spots along each side of the abdomen just below the wing covers, as well as two white spots on the back end of the abdomen. This species of Lady Beetle is actually native to China, Japan and eastern Russia. False Japanese beetle. http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/QP_insects.htm, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/pub_phjbeetle04.pdf, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100308132134.htm. Figure 1. Koppenhöfer AM, Wilson M, Brown I, Kaya HK, Gaugler R. 2000. Damage Appearance. It is also a pest of several fruit, garden, and field crops, and has a total host range of more than 300 plant species. A scarab as well. Scientific Name: Popillia japonica Newman, 1841 ( ITIS) Common Name: Japanese beetle. Krishik V. (2001). Cultural Control: During dry summers, female beetles seek irrigated and low lying areas for oviposition since soil moisture is essential for egg survival and larval development. Males emerge a few days earlier than females but eventually the population maintains a sex ratio of 1:1 (Fleming 1972, Régnière et al. 1986. It may be translucent to creamy white with small hexagonal areas on the surface. Do adult Japanese beetles stay in one garden? The scientific name for a Japanese beetle is Popillia japonica. Washington, DC, USA: Many beetles are herbivores, feeding on plants. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Photo by William Fountain, University of Kentucky, bugwood.org. Larvae feed on the roots of grasses and can be a problem for yards and turf. Biology of the Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in eastern Massachusetts. Photograph by USDA ARS, www.forestryimages.org. Attractants and Trapping: Commercially available Japanese beetle traps are useful in reducing small, recently established, or isolated populations. It is generally metallic green, with bronze or coppery-brown wing covers that do not completely cover the abdomen. Scientific name: Popillia japonica Newman. Both adults and larvae cause plant damage, but the host and nature of damage are usually different. The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, is a widespread and destructive pest of turf, landscape, and ornamental plants in the United States. The second instar continues to feed for another three to four weeks and molts to a third instar. According to Ohio State University, these small beetles eat the leaves and flowers of over 300 varieties of plants. Gordon FC, Potter DA. Photograph by Clemson University, USDA Slide Series, www.forestryimages.org. Efficiency of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) traps in reducing defoliation of plants in the urban landscape and effect on larval density in turf. Despite working wonders to clear pests from the garden, however, the exotic Asian Multicolored Lady Beetle has become somewhat of a pest itself. Access county info by clicking on each county. In most parts of its range, the Japanese beetle completes its life-cycle in one year, but some populations in cooler climates may complete their development in two years (Vittum 1986). Adult beetles can be found congregating on these plants and defoliating them in a manner described as “skeletonizing” because they leave the leaf veins intact but eat all of the tissue from between them. Klein, USDA, www.forestryimages.org. It is also a pest of several fruit, garden, and field crops, and has a total host range of more than 300 plant species. Rose chafers can also be mistaken for Japanese beetle but lack the white patches of hair along the abdomen entirely. Photo by Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Forestry Archive, bugwood.org. Journal of Economic Entomology 78: 774-778. The following are some of the better-known primary and secondary hosts (CABI 2004). High value plants may be protected with nets during peak beetle activity. There are five distinctive tufts of white hairs line each side of the body, and … Each thoracic segment bears a pair of segmented legs. The Japanese beetle is a garden pest native to northern Japan. It is important to understand the lifecycle to grasp how invasive this beetle can be. Vittum PJ. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on leaf. Toll Free: 800-967-2474 Paenibacillus popilliae (Milky Spore), is a bacterial pathogen of Japanese beetle grubs. Scientific Name(s) Popillia japonica Newman. The Japanese beetle's body is a striking metallic green, with copper-colored elytra (wing covers) covering the upper abdomen. Sporting metallic green heads, copper-colored wing covers, and oval-shaped bodies, adult Japanese beetles grow to about half an inch long. Chelsea MI: Ann Arbor Press. Photograph by Anne_Sophie Roy, European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, www.forestryimages.org. It will emerge the next day, or sometimes after three or four days and continue to feed, remate and may enter the soil for more than sixteen times during its adult life, to deposit a total of 40 to 60 eggs (Fleming 1972). Although they are able to eat many different kinds of plants, for anyone who has experienced Japanese beetle, it is clear that they have some plants they prefer over others. The expanding area of turfgrass has also provided excellent breeding ground for the beetles whose grubs continue to be the most damaging pest of turf in the northeastern U.S. (Cranshaw 2004). Japanese beetle is present in most of the eastern United States and has been present in Minnesota for decades. Dusts containing spores of Bacillus popilliae (Dutky), the causal agent of milky disease have been used in the past with satisfactory results but isolate of Bacillus thuringiensis, designated as serovar japonensis strain Buibui (Btj), has subsequently been found to be more effective (Potter and Held 2002). Native To: Japan ( Potter and Held 2002) Date of U.S. Ladd TL Jr. 1970. 711 TTY, © Copyright 2020 Minnesota Department of Agriculture, Farm, Property, Real Estate Listing (MN FarmLink), Agriculture Chemical Response & Reimbursement Account, Agricultural Best Management Practices (AgBMP) Loan, Agricultural Growth, Research & Innovation (AGRI) Program, Sustainable Agriculture Demonstration (AGRI), More Business Development, Loans, Grants Topics, Minnesota Ag Water Quality Certification Program, Certified Testing Laboratories (soil & manure), Fertilizer Tonnage Reporting & Inspection Fees, Pesticide Dealer Licensing & Sales Reporting, Read about advice on managing Japanese beetle from the University of Minnesota, U of M Extension - Japanese Beetle Information, Minnesota Japanese Beetle Distribution Map. Although the outbreaks in California, Oregon, and Nevada have reportedly been eradicated with chemigation (CABI 2008). Adult: The adult is an attractive and broadly oval beetle, 8 to 11 mm long (1/3 to 1/2 inch) and 5 to 7 mm (~1/4 inch) wide with females normally being larger than males. Pre-harvest, harvest. 2000). A typical morphological feature that helps to identify the Japanese beetle from other closely resembling beetles is the presence of six pairs of white hair brushes around the margins of the abdomen. They can also be collected in a bucket of soapy water by shaking the host plant (Ladd 1976). Many different plants are consumed by Japanese beetle adults, some of their favorites include roses, grapes, apple and basswood. Figure 12. Figure 4. Season. Figure 7. Native range: Japan. The following description of Popillia japonica biology is based on the detailed account by Fleming (1972). They have become established in parts of Minnesota. Despite regulatory efforts, by 2002 it had become established in at least 30 states (status map)(More detailed status map). More northern populations in Massachusetts, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire have adult emergence from late June to early July. Scientific Name: Phyllophaga (Derived from the Greek word phyllon, meaning “leaf,” and phagos, meaning “eater.”) Lifespan: One year (most species) or three years (May beetles and June bugs). Powered rotovation of soil to a depth of at least 10 cm during drier conditions around fall has proven to minimize survival of larvae, along with the removal of host plants in smaller infestations (EPPO 2016). Adult Japanese beetles feed on foliage, flowers, and fruits. 1998. Figure 3. The ovipositing female burrows into the soil at a depth of 2 to 4 inches and deposits one to three eggs (singly). Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. Studies with Japanese beetles under captivity have shown variations as wide as nine to 74 days in males and 17 to 105 days in females; the generally accepted range is 30 to 45 days (Fleming 1972). The adult beetle measures just about 1/2 inch in length. Cranshaw W. 2004. Japanese Beetle FAQ. Rose chafers. The grubs, which primarily feed on roots of grasses cause considerable damage to pasture, lawn and golf courses. Species and Origin: Japanese beetles are native to northern Japan. NAPIS. Adult Japanese beetles become active in Minnesota in late June/early July. Chemical Control: Since Japanese beetle is not yet reported as a pest problem in Florida, chemical recommendations are not currently available in the UF/IFAS Insect Management Guide. In an attempt to mate, the attracted males form a congregation around the unmated female, forming clusters referred to as beetle "balls" but mating rarely occurs under such intense competition (Ladd 1970). Photograph by Ronald S. Kelley, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, www.forestryimages.org. K (Back to Top) kahawaluokalani, Tinocallis, (Kirkaldy), crapemyrtle aphid Kalotermes approximatus Snyder, dark southern drywood termite Figure 13. Biology and management of Japanese. Geraniums could help control devastating Japanese beetle. They are very transient and will infest new areas. Mating begins soon after emergence as virgin females release powerful sex pheromones that immediately attract large number of males. Garden Insects of North America: The Ultimate Guide to Backyard Bugs. root-feeding white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in turfgrass. Sex attraction in the Japanese beetle. An entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema kushidai (Mamiya), has been observed to cause mortality rates comparable to an organophosphate insecticide, diazinon (Koppenhöfer et al. Usually, they make only short flights as they move about to feed. Adult Japanese beetles feed on foliage, flowers, and fruits. The life of adult beetles is relatively short under high temperatures and long under low temperatures (Fleming 1972). Photograph by David Cappaert, Michigan State University, www.forestryimages.org. This can cause severe damage to the plants. Since larvae feed primarily on the roots of grass, Japanese beetle is most prevalent in urban environments. branch and twig borers (family Bostrichidae) powderpost beetles (subfamily Lyctinae) Photograph by Clemson University, USDA Slide Series, www.forestryimages.org. Adult May beetles eat plant leaves (the genus name, Phyllophaga, means “leaf eater”) and flowers. Japanese beetle can be a significant landscape pest and difficult to tolerate, particularly when they first become abundant in an area. 1991. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman. Two other nematodes known to be most effective against Japanese beetle grubs are Steinernema glaseri (Steiner) and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar). Integrating control of the Japanese beetle - a historical review. Feeds on multiple crop and non crop plants. Native to their namesake country, Japanese beetles (scientific name Popillia japonica) were accidentally introduced to the United States in 1916 by way of infested, imported plants arriving in New Jersey. Photograph by Ronald S. Kelley, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, http://www.invasive.org. When are the beetles most active? To access the information, click on the map below. The Japanese beetle that savages your landscaping? They are specific to the P. Japonica species from which their name derives. Figure 5. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on apple leaves. And perhaps the … Journal of Economic Entomology 63: 905-908. Biological Control: Two species of tiphiid wasps, Tiphia vernalis Rohwer and Tiphia popilliavora Rohwer have proven successful biocontrol agents against Japanese beetles grubs (Fleming 1976). Insects that Feed on Trees and Shrubs. Many different plants are consumed by Japanese beetle adults, some of their favorites include roses, grapes, apple and basswood. Illustration of life cycle of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, with generalized emergence times. Larva: Translucent and creamy white, the grub is covered with scattered long brown hairs interspersed with short, blunt, spines. Adults emerge in mid-May in the warmer climates of Georgia and North Carolina. Holes or chewing damage. Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on grape leaf. Japanese beetles can fly as far as 5 miles but 1 to 2 miles is more likely. Photograph by John A. Weidhass, Virginia Tech, www.forestryimages.org. Journal of Economic Entomology 93: 71-87. USDA-APHIS. Photo by Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University, bugwood.org. Red (Scarlet) Beetle / Lily Beetle. While the larvae of Japanese beetles feed on the roots of many genera of grasses, the adults consume the leaves of a much wider range of hosts, including these common crops: bean, cannabis, strawberry, tomato, pepper, grape, hop, rose, cherry, plum, pear, peach, raspberry, blackberry, corn, pea, okra, and blueberry. USDA Technical Bulletin 1449, Washington, DC. At Risk. Feeding damage on roots reduces the ability of grass to take up enough water to withstand stresses of hot and dry weather, and result in dead patches. Bark beetles and borers can do considerable damage to mature trees. Adult Japanese beetles. If you think you have an infestation of Japanese beetles, and you're located in a county that Japanese beetle has not been reported or is not known to be abundant (see map above), please visit our Arrest the Pest page to report your findings to the MDA. Fleming WE. Common Name: Japanese Beetle; Scientific Name: Popillia japonica Newman; Order and Family: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae When they are numerous, then can damage lawns, gardens, and crops. If possible take a picture or collect a specimen to document the identity of the insects. Japanese beetle management in Minnesota. Scientific name: Popillia japonica Newman. Adults cause damage on foliage and flowers of a wide range of hosts and are most active on warm sunny days. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Many people first became aware of Japanese beetle when they were very abundant in the Twin Cities metro area in 2011. Favorable climate, availability of wide variety of host plants, and lack of important natural enemies have influenced the spread of Japanese beetle in the United States (Fleming 1972). Adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, feeding damage on soybean leaves. Ants and ground beetles feed on eggs and young larvae; moles, skunks, and racoons also prey on the grubs although their foraging activity may often be destructive to turf (Potter 1998). Tiphia vernalis attacks overwintering grubs, whereas Tiphia popilliavora attacks young grubs in late summer. The scientific name for red lily beetles is Lilioceris lilii and they are … Johnson WT, Lyon HH. Its use in combination with other chemical products is known to produce a synergistic effect. Photo by Jeff Hahn, University of Minnesota Extension. Pupation usually occurs near the soil surface, and takes one to three weeks. Although Popillia japonica generally lays most of its eggs on pastures, lawns and golf courses, eggs may also be deposited in agricultural fields. Photograph by David Cappaert, Michigan State University, www.forestryimages.org. (April 2004). 1985. The enormous rhinoceros beetles of Central and South America are scarabs. Popillia japonica. 1972. 1976. It is specific to scarab larvae and the effect of inundative releases have lasted in the field for one to two years. In Minnesota, Japanese beetle has been found in many counties but is only known to be abundant in some. In more recent studies, it has also been found in Texas, South Dakota, Washington, North Dakota, as well as a few spots in California, Oregon, and Nevada. Secondary hosts: Aesculus (buckeyes), Althaea (hollyhocks), Betula (birches), Castanea (chestnuts), Hibiscus (rosemallows), Juglans nigra (American walnut), Platanus (planes), Populus (poplars), Salix (willow), Sassafras albidum (common sassafras), Sorbus americana (American mountain ash), turf grasses. They prefer plants which are growing in direct sunlight. Selection of a site for oviposition is influenced by proximity to host plant, nature of ground cover, and the soil condition. During dry summers when pastures are hard and dry, beetles are known to seek cultivated and fallow fields with loose and moist soil. Figure 9. Internet References Ohio State (Shetlar & Andon 2015) ( 3 ) Figure 8. Biology Skip to Biology. Insecticides for Japanese Beetle Control. The Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) is … The first instar feeds on nearby rootlets and organic matter for two to three weeks and molts for the first time. They only reach between 8 and 11 mm in length. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Outside of its native Japan, Popillia japonica is found in China, Russia, Portugal, Canada and the USA (CABI 2009). Primary hosts: Acer (maples), Asparagus officinalis (asparagus), Glycine max (soybean), Malus (ornamental species apple), Prunus (stone fruit including plums, peaches etc), Rheum hybridum (rhubarb), Rosa (roses), Rubus (blackberry, raspberry), Tilia (limes), Ulmus (elms), Vitis (grapes), Zea mays (corn). And turf and control three thoracic and ten abdominal segments Backyard Bugs ( Fleming 1972 ):! 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